What does it take to become an expert or master performer in a given field? Ericsson says the rule is an oversimplification, and in many ways, an incorrect interpretation of his research. The 10, Hour Rule: Catchy and easy to remember, but on some pretty shaky scientific footing. Gladwell uses several examples in his book when introducing this rule: one is the research done by Ericsson that focused on violin students at a music academy in Berlin. The study found that the most accomplished of the students had put in 10, hours by the time they turned Gladwell also estimates that the Beatles put in 10, hours of practice playing in Hamburg in the early s, and that Bill Gates put in 10, hours of programming work before founding Microsoft. Hence the 10, hour rule was born: put in your 10, hours of practice, and become an expert in a given field.
Natural Talent: Not Important
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Subscriber Account active since. Malcolm Gladwell. The principle holds that 10, hours of "deliberate practice" are needed to become world-class in any field. When psychologists talk about deliberate practice , they mean practicing in a way that pushes your skill set as much as possible. In " Outliers ," Gladwell contends that early access to getting 10, hours of practice allowed the Beatles to become the greatest band in history thanks to playing all-night shows in Hamburg and Bill Gates to become one of the richest dudes around thanks to using a computer since his teen years. But a new Princeton study tears that theory down. What's really surprising is how much it depends on the domain:. I n it, Johansson argues that deliberate practice is only a predictor of success in fields that have super stable structures. For example, in tennis, chess, and classical music, the rules never change, so you can study up to become the best. But in less stable fields, like entrepreneurship and rock and roll, rules can go out the window:.
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What is the 10,000-Hour Rule?
Forty years ago, in a paper in American Scientist , Herbert Simon and William Chase drew one of the most famous conclusions in the study of expertise:. There are no instant experts in chess—certainly no instant masters or grandmasters. There appears not to be on record any case including Bobby Fischer where a person reached grandmaster level with less than about a decade's intense preoccupation with the game. We would estimate, very roughly, that a master has spent perhaps 10, to 50, hours staring at chess positions…. The sole exceptions: Shostakovich and Paganini, who took nine years, and Erik Satie, who took eight. Nobody walks into an operating room, straight out of a surgical rotation, and does world-class neurosurgery. And second—and more crucially for the theme of Outliers —the amount of practice necessary for exceptional performance is so extensive that people who end up on top need help. They invariably have access to lucky breaks or privileges or conditions that make all those years of practice possible.
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